## Patent us20100201455 – predictive pulse width modulation for an open delta h-bridge driven high … – google patents

wherein E emf(T magnet,rpm) is the back emf of the machine as a function of the magnet temperature and speed, ? elect is the electrical angle for the machine during that particular duty cycle, I ref is an input quantity of reference current, i.e., the amount of current that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle, R s is the phase resistance of the machine and is a known input parameter, T winding is the temperature of the windings in the coil, and is also a known input parameter, L is the inductance of the inductor and is also an input parameter, and Vbus is the supply voltage of the inverter, and is a quantity that is measured by an analog-to-digital converter

wherein E emf(T magnet,rpm ) is the back emf of the machine as a function of the magnet temperature and speed, ? elect is the electrical angle for the machine during that particular duty cycle, I ref is an input quantity of reference current, i.e., the amount of current that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle, R s is the phase resistance of the machine and is a known input parameter, T winning is the temperature of the windings in the coil, and is also a known input parameter, L is the inductance of the inductor and is also an input parameter, and Vbus is the supply voltage of the inverter, and is a quantity that is measured by an analog-to-digital converter.

wherein E emf(T magnet,rpm) is the back emf of the machine as a function of the magnet temperature and speed, ? elect is the electrical angle for the machine during that particular duty cycle, I ref is an input quantity of reference current, i.e., the amount of current that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle, R s is the phase resistance of the machine and is a known input parameter, T winding is the temperature of the windings in the coil, and is also a known input parameter, L is the inductance of the inductor and is also an input parameter, and Vbus is the supply voltage of the inverter, and is a quantity that is measured by an analog-to-digital converter.

One of the main benefits for using an H-bridge to drive a PM machine is that it lowers the ripple current in the motor windings that results from the pulsating voltage waveforms of the pulse modulated power stage. **Advantages of sinusoidal pulse width modulation** Ripple current is a small unwanted residual periodic variation of the direct current output of a power supply which has been derived from an alternating power source. Pulse width modulation duty cycle Another benefit garnered from driving a PM machine with an H-bridge is that the H-bridge allows a greater level of flexibility to shape the current waveform beyond the 120-degree limitation imposed by a conventional 3-phase inverter.

Embodiments of the present disclosure relate to a computer-implemented method for determining a predictive duty cycle that is able to determine the magnitude and pulse width of an H-bridge pulse width modulation that is used to drive a machine motor, including determining machine parameters, inputting the machine parameters into a predicted duty cycle module, determining the optimum polarity of the pulse width modulation for a predicted duty cycle based on a pulse width modulation generation algorithm, and determining the optimum type of the pulse width modulation for a predicted duty cycle based on the pulse width modulation generation algorithm.

wherein E emf(T magnet,rpm) is the back emf of the machine as a function of the magnet temperature and speed, ? elect is the electrical angle for the machine during that particular duty cycle, I ref is an input quantity of reference current, i.e., the amount of current that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle, R s is the phase resistance of the machine and is a known input parameter, T winding is the temperature of the windings in the coil, and is also a known input parameter, L is the inductance of the inductor and is also an input parameter, and Vbus is the supply voltage of the inverter, and is a quantity that is measured by an analog-to-digital converter.

wherein E emf(T magnet,rpm) is the back emf of the machine as a function of the magnet temperature and speed, ? elect is the electrical angle for the machine during that particular duty cycle, I ref is an input quantity of reference current, i.e., the amount of current that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle, R s is the phase resistance of the machine and is a known input parameter, T winding is the temperature of the windings in the coil, and is also a known input parameter, L is the inductance of the inductor and is also an input parameter, and Vbus is the supply voltage of the inverter, and is a quantity that is measured by an analog-to-digital converter.

FIG. *Pulse width modulation using 555* 5A illustrates a 3-phase open delta configuration machine model that includes schematic representations for three power sources E a, E b, and E c, three resistors R a, R b, and R c, and three inductors L a, L b, and L e, although other configurations are contemplated. *Pulse width modulation synth* The currents i a, i b, and i c of each of the phases are also depicted in the machine model seen in FIG. Pulse width modulator hho 5A. Pulse width modulation and demodulation The machine model is considered an open delta configuration since the three windings are not all connected to one point. Uses of pulse width modulation The machine is able to receive digital-signals which dictate the motor’s movement. Pulse width modulation valve For instance, in the case of a permanent magnet machine, the motor is started spinning by the motor setting the current vector to a very high DC magnitude. Pulse width modulation vape Setting the current vector to a high constant value enables the magnetic field vector of the motor to align itself with the current vector. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation for 3 phase inverter At this initial time, the torque angle of the motor is near zero.

As illustrated in FIG. Application of pulse width modulation 6, once the processor inputs parameters 602 into the predictive duty cycle 604, the algorithm is able to determine the sign 606 of the predictive duty cycle, as well as the value of d predictive 608, which determines the polarity of the duty cycle. Pulse width modulation microcontroller Moreover, the processor determines a predicted duty cycle such that the PI regulator 610 is limited in the amount of current correction that it implements, i.e., such that the actual current 614 in the motor is close to the reference current 612 that the processor wants to get out of that particular duty cycle. Sine pulse width modulation This reduces the ripple current of the machine and consequently the machine motor runs more efficiently.

FIG. Disadvantages of pulse width modulation 7 illustrates a flowchart for optimizing the torque of a permanent magnet machine in one embodiment of the present method and system. Pulse width modulation 555 timer In step 702, machine parameters are determined. Pulse width modulation and demodulation theory pdf These parameters may be values known prior to the operation of the machine, and/or they may be parameters that are measured during the operation of the machine. *Pulse width modulation heater control* Next, in step 704, the machine parameters are input into a duty cycle prediction module. **Pulse width modulation circuit** design Then, the optimum polarity of the pulse width modulation is determined for a predicted duty cycle based on a pulse width modulation generation algorithm, which is the equation described above, in step 706. Pulse width modulation for power converters Finally, in step 708, the optimum type of pulse width modulation is determined for a predicted duty cycle based on a pulse width modulation generation algorithm.

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